MLA Works Cited Page: Books
MLA ( Modern Language Association ) vogue is most normally used to write papers and summon sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook ( 9th erectile dysfunction. ), offers examples for the cosmopolitan format of MLA inquiry papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
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When you are gathering book sources, be certain to make note of the surveil bibliographic items : the generator name ( second ), early contributors such as translators or editors, the book ’ second title, editions of the record, the publication date, the publisher, and the pagination .
The 8th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. basically, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, claim, etc. and then assort them in a general format. frankincense, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any reservoir regardless of whether it ’ south included in this tilt .
Please note these changes in the raw version :
- Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination.
- Medium is no longer necessary.
- Containers are now a part of the MLA process. Commas should be used after container titles.
- DOIs should be used instead of URLS when available.
- Use the term “Accessed” instead of listing the date or the abbreviation, “n.d.”
Below is the general format for any citation :
generator. Title. Title of container ( do not list container for standalone books, e.g. novels ), other contributors ( translators or editors ), Version ( version ), Number ( vol. and/or no. ), Publisher, Publication Date, Location ( pages, paragraph URL or DOI ). 2nd container ’ randomness title, early contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access ( if applicable ) .
Basic Book Format
The generator ’ mho name or a record with a one writer ‘s name appears in last identify, first name format. The basic form for a book citation is :
death list, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date .
*Note : the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one area, or if the publisher is unknown in North America .
Book with One Author
Gleick, James. chaos : Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987 .
Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999 .
Book with More Than One Author
When a record has two authors, order the authors in the lapp way they are presented in the ledger. Start by listing the first gear name that appears on the book in death list, first name format ; subsequent writer names appear in normal order ( first name last name format ) .
Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000 .
If there are three or more authors, tilt only the first generator followed by the phrase et alabama. ( Latin for “ and others ” ) in home of the subsequent authors ‘ names. ( Note that there is a time period after “ alabama ” in “ et al. ” besides note that there is never a period after the “ et ” in “ et al. ” ) .
Wysocki, Anne Frances, et aluminum. Writing New Media : theory and Applications for Expanding the teach of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004 .
Two or More Books by the Same Author
list works alphabetically by entitle. ( Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The. ) Provide the author ’ mho mention in last name, first list format for the inaugural entry alone. For each subsequent introduction by the same writer, use three hyphens and a period .
Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin ‘s, 1997 .
— -. The Films of the Eighties : A Social History. Southern Illinois UP, 1993 .
Book by a Corporate Author or Organization
A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government means, or a group that does not identify individual members on the deed foliate .
List the names of corporate authors in the place where an writer ’ s list typically appears at the begin of the submission .
American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998 .
When the writer and publisher are the same, skip the writer, and list the title first. then, list the corporate generator only as the publisher .
Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985 .
Book with No Author
list by claim of the bible. Incorporate these entries alphabetically precisely as you would with works that include an generator diagnose. For case, the follow submission might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan .
Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993 .
Remember that for an in-text ( parenthetic ) citation of a script with no writer, you should provide the name of the work in the bespeak phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may besides use a sawed-off interpretation of the style of the book accompanied by the page issue. For more information see the In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations : The Basics .
A Translated Book
If you want to emphasize the work quite than the interpreter, mention as you would any other script. Add “ translated by ” and follow with the name ( randomness ) of the translator ( south ) .
Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization : A history of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988 .
If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the generator. In place of the author ’ randomness name, the interpreter ’ s identify appears. His or her identify is followed by the tag, “ translator. ” If the generator of the book does not appear in the championship of the book, include the name, with a “ By ” after the claim of the script and before the publisher. note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central function .
Howard, Richard, translator. Madness and Civilization : A history of Insanity in the Age of Reason. By Michel Foucault, Vintage-Random House, 1988 .
Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new version. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier go steady and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original issue date before the issue information .
For books that are new editions ( i.e. different from the beginning or early editions of the ledger ), see An edition of a Book downstairs .
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. Routledge, 1999 .
Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993 .
An Edition of a Book
There are two types of editions in book publication : a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by person other than the author ( typically an editor ) .
A Subsequent Edition
Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the style .
Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004 .
A Work Prepared by an Editor
Cite the koran as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label “ edited by. ”
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre, edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998 .
notice that the format for citing sources with authoritative contributors with editor-like roles follows the lapp basic template :
… adapted by John Doe …
last, in the consequence that the reservoir features a contributor that can not be described with a past-tense verb and the word “ by ” ( e.g., “ edited by ” ), you may rather use a noun followed by a comma, like then :
… guest editor, Jane Smith …
Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)
To cite the integral anthology or collection, list by editor ( s ) followed by a comma and “ editor ” or, for multiple editors, “ editors. ” This sort of introduction is reasonably rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection ( more common ), see A work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.
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Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining ocular Rhetorics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004 .
Peterson, Nancy J., editor. Toni Morrison : critical and theoretical Approaches. Johns Hopkins UP, 1997 .
A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection
Works may include an essay in an edit solicitation or anthology, or a chapter of a ledger. The basic class is for this sort of quotation is as follows :
last name, First mention. “ Title of Essay. ” title of Collection, edited by Editor ‘s Name ( south ), Publisher, Year, Page stove of submission .
Some examples :
Harris, Muriel. “ lecture to Me : Engaging Reluctant Writers. ” A Tutor ‘s Guide : Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34 .
Swanson, Gunnar. “ graphic Design Education as a liberal artwork : design and Knowledge in the University and The ‘Real World. ‘ ” The Education of a Graphic Designer, edited by Steven Heller, Allworth Press, 1998, pp. 13-24 .
eminence on Cross-referencing several Items from One anthology : If you cite more than one essay from the same edit collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited tilt in rate to avoid writing out the publish information for each discriminate try. You should consider this choice if you have several references from a individual text. To do therefore, include a separate entry for the integral solicitation listed by the editor ‘s mention as below :
Rose, Shirley K, and Irwin Weiser, editors. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Heinemann, 1999 .
then, for each individual try from the solicitation, list the writer ‘s name in death name, beginning name format, the claim of the essay, the editor ‘s last name, and the foliate crop :
L’Eplattenier, Barbara. “ Finding Ourselves in the Past : An argument for Historical Work on WPAs. ” Rose and Weiser, pp. 131-40 .
Peeples, Tim. “ ‘Seeing ‘ the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping. ” Rose and Weiser, pp. 153-67 .
Please note : When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetic order should be maintained for the entire tilt .
Poem or Short Story Examples :
Burns, Robert. “ Red, Red Rose. ” 100 favored Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26 .
Kincaid, Jamaica. “ Girl. ” The Vintage Book of contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07 .
If the particular literary work is part of the author ‘s own solicitation ( all of the works have the same author ), then there will be no editor program to reference :
Whitman, Walt. “ I Sing the Body Electric. ” Selected Poems, Dover, 1991, pp. 12-19 .
Carter, Angela. “ The Tiger ‘s Bride. ” Burning Your Boats : The Collected Stories, Penguin, 1995, pp. 154-69 .
Article in a Reference Book (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)
For entries in encyclopedia, dictionaries, and other mention works, cite the introduction name as you would any other oeuvre in a solicitation but do not include the publisher information. besides, if the character book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page count of the article or item .
“ ideology. ” The american Heritage Dictionary. 3rd erectile dysfunction. 1997 .
A Multivolume Work
When citing only one bulk of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work ‘s title, or after the function ‘s editor program or translator .
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980 .
When citing more than one book of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. besides, be indisputable in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number ( s ) ( see “ Citing Multivolume Works ” on our in-text citations resource. )
Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 4 vols .
If the bulk you are using has its own style, cite the reserve without referring to the other volumes as if it were an mugwump publication .
Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Dodd, 1957 .
An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword
When citing an insertion, a precede, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the generator ( second ) of the piece you are citing. then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks ; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the generator of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page crop .
Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture, by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13 .
If the writer of the slice is different from the writer of the complete work, then write the wide list of the principal work ‘s writer after the son “ By. ” For model, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan ’ mho introduction of Kenneth Burke ’ s book Permanence and Change, you would write the introduction as follows :
Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change : An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv .
Book Published Before 1900
original copies of books published before 1900 are normally defined by their place of publication preferably than the publisher. Unless you are using a newer edition, cite the city of publication where you would normally cite the publisher .
Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863 .
Italicize “ The bible ” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text ( parenthetic citation ) should include the list of the specific version of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse ( randomness ). ( See Citing the bible at In-Text Citations : The Basics. )
The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998 .
The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version, 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001 .
The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985 .
A Government Publication
Cite the author of the publication if the writer is identified. otherwise, begin with the name of the national government, followed by the agency ( including any subdivisions or agencies ) that serves as the organizational writer. For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolving power passed adenine well as the composition phone number. u politics documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office .
United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st seance, Senate Report 111-8 .
United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change : EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two voluntary Programs. Government Printing Office, 2006 .
Cite the title and publication information for the booklet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials normally feature corporate authors ( commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group penis names ). If the tract you are citing has no generator, quote as directed below. If your booklet has an writer or a bodied author, put the name of the writer ( survive diagnose, beginning name format ) or bodied writer in the place where the generator list typically appears at the beginning of the submission. ( See besides Books by a Corporate author or Organization above. )
Women ‘s Health : Problems of the Digestive System. american College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006 .
Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. California Department of Social Services, 2007 .
Dissertations and Master’s Theses
Dissertations and headmaster ‘s theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Unlike previous editions, MLA 8 specifies no difference in manner for published/unpublished works .
The main elements of a dissertation citation are the same as those for a record : author name ( s ), deed ( italicized ), and publication date. Conclude with an indication of the document type ( for example, “ PhD dissertation ” ). The degree-granting institution may be included before the document type ( though this is not required ). If the dissertation was accessed through an on-line repository, include it as the second container after all the early elements.
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Bishop, Karen Lynn. Documenting institutional identity : Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. 2002. Purdue University, PhD dissertation .
Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric : Toward a Dialectical Partnership. 2005. Ohio University, PhD dissertation .
Mitchell, Mark. The Impact of Product Quality Reducing Events on the Value of Brand-Name Capital: Evidence from Airline Crashes and the 1982 Tylenol Poisonings. 1987. PhD dissertation. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses .