MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)
MLA ( Modern Language Association ) style is most normally used to write papers and reference sources within the big arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook ( 9th erectile dysfunction. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.
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The MLA Handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. basically, a writer will need to take notice of primary elements in every source, such as writer, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. therefore, by using this methodology, a writer will be able to cite any reservoir careless of whether it ’ south included in this tilt .
however, this guide will highlight a few concerns when citing digital sources in MLA style .
Best Practices for Managing Online Sources
Because on-line information can change or disappear, it is constantly a adept idea to keep personal copies of significant electronic data whenever potential. Downloading or tied printing key documents ensures you have a static stand-in. You can besides use the Bookmark officiate in your vane browser in order to build an easy-to-access reference for all of your project ‘s sources ( though this will not help you if the information is changed or deleted ) .
It is besides judicious to keep a record of when you beginning consult with each on-line source. MLA uses the phrase, “ Accessed ” to denote which date you accessed the network page when available or necessity. It is not required to do thus, but it is encouraged ( particularly when there is no copyright date listed on a web site ) .
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
Include a URL or web address to help readers locate your sources. Because web addresses are not electrostatic ( i.e., they change often ) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the web ( for example, on multiple databases ), MLA encourages the use of citing containers such as Youtube, JSTOR, Spotify, or Netflix in ordering to well access and verify sources. however, MLA only requires the world wide web. savoir-faire, so eliminate all hypertext transfer protocol : // when citing URLs .
many scholarly journal articles found in databases include a DOI ( digital object identifier ). If a DOI is available, cite the DOI count rather of the URL .
on-line newspapers and magazines sometimes include a “ permalink, ” which is a telescoped, static translation of a URL. Look for a “ share ” or “ cite this ” button to see if a source includes a permalink. If you can find a permalink, use that alternatively of a URL .
Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources
If page numbers are not available, function equality. or pars. to denote paragraph numbers. Use these in place of the p. or pp. abbreviation. Par. would be used for a single paragraph, while pars. would be used for a couple of two or more paragraphs .
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
hera are some common features you should try to find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. not every network page will provide all of the succeed data. however, collect as much of the be information as possible :
- Author and/or editor names (if available); last names first.
- “Article name in quotation marks.”
- Title of the website, project, or book in italics.
- Any version numbers available, including editions (ed.), revisions, posting dates, volumes (vol.), or issue numbers (no.).
- Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
- Take note of any page numbers (p. or pp.) or paragraph numbers (par. or pars.).
- DOI (if available), otherwise a URL (without the https://) or permalink.
- Date you accessed the material (Date Accessed). While not required, saving this information it is highly recommended, especially when dealing with pages that change frequently or do not have a visible copyright date.
Use the trace format :
writer. “ Title. ” title of container ( self contained if book ), early contributors ( translators or editors ), Version ( version ), Number ( vol. and/or no. ), Publisher, Publication Date, Location ( pages, paragraph and/or URL, DOI or permalink ). 2nd container ’ mho deed, other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access ( if applicable ) .
Citing an Entire Web Site
When citing an stallion web site, follow the like format as listed above, but include a compiler name if no individual writer is available .
generator, or compiler appoint ( if available ). name of Site. Version number ( if available ), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the locate ( sponsor or publisher ), date of resource creation ( if available ), DOI ( preferred ), otherwise include a URL or permalink. Date of access ( if applicable ) .
editor, generator, or compiler name ( if available ). name of Site. Version count, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site ( patron or publisher ), date of resource creation ( if available ), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access ( if applicable ) .
The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008 .
Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006 .
Course or Department Websites
Give the teacher name. then list the deed of the course ( or the educate catalog appointment for the course ) in italics. Give appropriate department and school names a well, following the course deed .
Felluga, Dino. Survey of the Literature of England. Purdue U, Aug. 2006, web.ics.purdue.edu/~felluga/241/241/Home.html. Accessed 31 May 2007 .
english Department. Purdue U, 20 Apr. 2009, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/. Accessed 31 May 2015 .
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by an indication of the specific page or article being referenced. normally, the title of the page or article appears in a header at the top of the page. Follow this with the information covered above for entire Web sites. If the publisher is the like as the web site name, only list it once .
Lundman, Susan. “ How to Make vegetarian Chili. ” eHow, www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. Accessed 6 July 2015 .
“ Athlete ‘s Foot – subject Overview. ” WebMD, 25 Sept. 2014, www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/athletes-foot-topic-overview .
Citations for e-books closely resemble those for physical books. Simply indicate that the record in motion is an e-book by putting the term “ e-book ” in the “ version ” slot of the MLA template ( i.e., after the author, the championship of the source, the title of the container, and the names of any other contributors ) .
silva, Paul J. How to Write a lot : A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. E-book, American Psychological Association, 2007 .
If the e-book is formatted for a specific lector device or service, you can indicate this by treating this data the lapp way you would treat a physical reserve ‘s version number. Often, this will mean replacing “ e-book ” with “ [ App/Service ] erectile dysfunction. ”
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince, translated by W. K. Marriott, Kindle ed., Library of Alexandria, 2018 .
Note: The MLA considers the condition “ e-book ” to refer to publications formatted specifically for reading with an e-book reviewer device ( for example, a Kindle ) or a represent world wide web application. These e-books will not have URLs or DOIs. If you are citing script message from an average web page with a URL, use the “ A page on a Web Site ” format above.
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An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)
Provide the artist ‘s mention, the oeuvre of art italicized, the go steady of creation, the institution and city where the knead is housed. Follow this initial introduction with the diagnose of the Website in italics, and the date of access .
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado, www.museodelprado.es/en/the-collection/art-work/the-family-of-carlos-iv/f47898fc-aa1c-48f6-a779-71759e417e74. Accessed 22 May 2006 .
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. museum of Modern Art, New York. The Artchive, www.artchive.com/artchive/K/klee/twittering_machine.jpg.html. Accessed May 2006 .
If the employment cited is available on the web merely, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, and then follow the citation format for a web site. If the shape is posted via a username, use that username for the generator .
Adams, Clifton R. “ People Relax Beside a Swimming Pool at a Country Estate Near Phoenix, Arizona, 1928. ” Found, National Geographic Creative, 2 June 2016, natgeofound.tumblr.com/ .
An Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author name, article identify in quotation marks, title of the vane magazine in italics, publisher name, publication go steady, URL, and the date of access .
Bernstein, Mark. “ 10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. ” A List Apart : For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, alistapart.com/article/writeliving. Accessed 4 May 2009 .
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal
For all on-line scholarly journals, provide the author ( s ) mention ( south ), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the issue in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication. Include a DOI if available, differently provide a URL or permalink to help readers locate the source .
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal
MLA requires a page scope for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the diary you are citing appears entirely in an on-line format ( i.e. there is no corresponding print publication ) that does not make use of page numbers, indicate the URL or other localization information .
Dolby, Nadine. “ Research in Youth Culture and Policy : current Conditions and Future Directions. ” Social Work and Society : The International Online-Only Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, 2008, www.socwork.net/sws/article/view/60/362. Accessed 20 May 2009 .
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
Cite articles in on-line scholarly journals that besides appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Provide the URL and the date of access .
Wheelis, Mark. “ Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. ” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 6, no. 6, 2000, pp. 595-600, wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/6/6/00-0607_article. Accessed 8 Feb. 2009 .
An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
Cite on-line databases ( e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect ) and other subscription services as containers. thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL rather. Provide the date of access if you wish .
Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. “ Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates. ” Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/tox.20155. Accessed 26 May 2009 .
Langhamer, Claire. “ Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England. ” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009 .
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)
Give the generator of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. state to whom the message was sent with the idiom, “ Received by ” and the recipient role ’ s appoint. Include the date the message was sent. Use standard capitalization .
Kunka, Andrew. “ Re : Modernist Literature. ” Received by John Watts, 15 Nov. 2000 .
Neyhart, David. “ Re : Online Tutoring. ” Received by Joe Barbato, 1 Dec. 2016 .
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite web postings as you would a standard web entrance. Provide the generator of the exercise, the title of the post in citation marks, the web site name in italics, the publisher, and the mail date. Follow with the date of entree. Include shield name as writer names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the writer ’ south appoint in brackets .
author or compiler name ( if available ). “ Posting Title. ” Name of Site, Version count ( if available ), Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site ( patronize or publisher ), URL. Date of access .
Salmar1515 [ Sal Hernandez ]. “ Re : Best strategy : Fenced Pastures vs. Max Number of Rooms ? ” BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008, boardgamegeek.com/thread/343929/best-strategy-fenced-pastures-vs-max-number-rooms. Accessed 5 Apr. 2009 .
Begin with the exploiter ‘s Twitter handle in place of the author ’ second identify. Next, topographic point the pinch in its entirety in quotations, inserting a menstruation after the pinch within the quotations. Include the date and clock time of mailing, using the lector ‘s time zone ; separate the go steady and time with a comma and end with a time period. Include the date accessed if you deem necessary .
@ tombrokaw. “ SC demonstrated why all the debates are the engines of this campaign. ” Twitter, 22 Jan. 2012, 3:06 ante meridiem, twitter.com/tombrokaw/status/160996868971704320 .
@ PurdueWLab. “ spring break is around the corner, and all our locations will be open adjacent week. ” Twitter, 5 Mar. 2012, 12:58 post meridiem, twitter.com/PurdueWLab/status/176728308736737282 .
A YouTube Video
Video and audio sources need to be documented using the same basic guidelines for citing print sources in MLA manner. Include as much descriptive information as necessary to help readers understand the type and nature of the reservoir you are citing. If the author ’ south name is the like as the uploader, only cite the writer once. If the generator is different from the uploader, cite the writer ’ sulfur name before the claim .
McGonigal, Jane. “ Gaming and Productivity. ” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch ? v=mkdzy9bWW3E.
“ 8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test. ” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch ? v=WBlpjSEtELs .
A Comment on a Website or Article
List the username as the generator. Use the phrase, Comment on, before the title. Use citation marks around the article title. Name the publisher, date, fourth dimension ( listed on near the gloss ), and the URL .
not Omniscient Enough. comment on “ Flight Attendant Tells Passenger to ‘ Shut Up ’ After Argument Over Pasta. ” ABC News, 9 Jun 2016, 4:00 post meridiem, abcnews.go.com/US/flight-attendant-tells-passenger-shut-argument-pasta/story ? id=39704050 .